Spatial and Temporal Localization of Flavonoid Metabolites in Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria × ananassa)

Crecelius, Anna C.; Hölscher, Dirk; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schneider, Bernd; Fischer, Thilo C.; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Flachowsky, Henryk; Schwab, Wilfried; Schubert, Ulrich S.
Flavonoids are important metabolites in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa) because they accomplish an extensive collection of physiological functions and are valuable for human health. However, their localization within the fruit tissue has not been extensively explored. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was employed to shed light on the spatial distribution of flavonoids during fruit development. One wild-type (WT) and two transgenic lines were compared, wherein the transgenic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANRi) and flavonol synthase (FLSi), respectively, were down-regulated using an RNAi-based silencing approach. In most cases, fruit development led to a reduction of the investigated flavonoids in the fruit tissue; as a consequence, they were exclusively present in the skin of mature red fruits. In the case of (epi)catechin dimer, both the ANRi and the WT phenotypes revealed low levels in mature red fruits, whereas the ANRi line bore the lowest relative concentration, as analyzed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization multiple-step mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn).
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Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
3559 - 3568