• Solar Batteries

    The aim of the project „Solarbatteries“, which is funded by the TAB, is the research of solarbatteries, i.e. hybrid systems, which consist of a battery and a solar cell. Due to the close linkage of both systems, a novel self-charging storage system is generated. A continuous power supply is possible, the battery can store the energy for the times when the solar cell cannot provide electric current.
    These all-in-one systems do not require extensive wiring. Moreover, due to the usage of polymer-based batteries flexible devices are possible. Within the project two different systems will be evaluated:

    a) Combination of organic polymer solar cells with polymer batteries.
    b) Flexible textile silicon solar cells with polymer batteries. Potential applications of these systems are in the area of smart packaging as well as sensor systems.



  • Biotechnology

    The focus of our work is the understanding, characterization and optimization of polymeric materials for biological applications. We are working at the interface between macromolecular science, biology, biotechnology and nanomedicine. As an example, we investigate polymers to deliver drugs, tracer, or genetic material to cells. We further develop targeting strategies for nanomedical applications.

    Confocal microscopy - ELYRA PS.1 with LSM 880

    Confocal microscopy supports sensitivity demanding applications in life sciences as well as topographic tasks on materials surfaces or even particles. The complexity of experiments in biomedical research requires a deep inside into biological systems, where superresolution imaging will work best if you can image a whole cell while switching between different imaging methods in the course of an experiment. The ELYRA PS.1 provides two superresolution systems: (i) superresolution structured illumination (SR-SIM) to image fine structural details while remaining free to label your samples with conventional dyes; and (ii) superresolution photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) for photo-activatable endogenously-expressed fluorescent proteins or synthetic dyes.


  • Hydrodynamic Characterization

  • Inkjet

    Inkjet printing is a versatile and flexible technique to dispense tiny amounts of materials onto specific locations of a substrate. Inkjet printing can be used for instance in plastic electronics, where the conductive materials are printed, or in materials screening, where different formulation are printed into films and subsequently screened by means of spectroscopy.


  • Mass Spectrometry

    Mass Spectrometry (MS) is mainly employed in the Schubert group for the elucidation of the structures of compounds which are synthesized within the Schubert group, such as homopolymers, block- and random copolymers, terpyridine complexes and sugar molecules. There are three ionization techniques available within the group, e.g. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). All three ionization techniques are considered as powerful tools. Especially in the polymer analysis, since the determination of the end groups, repeating units, average molar masses, and the polydispersity index (PDI) can be obtained. Additionally, the MS/MS analysis provides structural information. An example of a mass spectrum obtained from poly(styrene) (PS) using MALDI MS is presented in Figure 1. The average molar masses can be calculated from the distribution of the peaks with the assistance of a suitable software.

    When the polymer samples are much more complex, 2-dimensional chromatography prior to MALDI or ESI MS is employed. Since the interpretation of the MALDI MS/MS results of polymer samples is very time consuming, we are collaborating with Prof. S. Böcker (Institute for Informatics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena) to automatically identify the structure of the monitored fragment ions. An example of an ESI analysis of a ruthenium-terpyridine complex is given in Figure 2. The calculated isotopic pattern of the recorded doubly charged ion fits exactly to the measured ones.

    picture. Figure 1. MALDI MS spectrum of PS using DCTB as matrix and AgTFA as ionization salt.


    Figure 2. (a) ESI MS analysis of a ruthenium-terpyridine complex, (b) the inset shows the experimental and calculated isotope patterns of the doubly charged ion of the ruthenium-terpyridine complex, (c) schematic representation of the structure of the analyzed ruthenium-terpyridine complex.
    Another interest in the Schubert group is MALDI-imaging MS, a relatively new technique, which permits the direct analysis and determination of the distribution of molecules in tissue sections. Using this emerging technology ion images are generated from the analyzed tissue sections. Several collaborations in this field:

    * PD Dr. F. Eggeling and L. Wehder (Core Unit Chip Application, Institute for Human Genetic and Anthropology, University Clinical Center Jena) MALDI-Imaging MS of human tumor tissue

    * Dr. D. Hölscher (Department of Entomology, Mass Spectrometry Research Group, and Biosynthesis/NMR Research Group, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Ecology) Matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging at the single – cell level: distribution of secondary metabolites of different plant species

    * Dr. G. Schneider and K. Otto (Hospital for Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, University Clinical Center Jena) MALDI-imaging MS of protein responses to polymer based implants

    * Prof. A. Stallmach and C. Marquardt (Hospital for Internal Medicin II, Department Gastroenterology, University Clinical Center Jena) Identification of new protein biomarkers of the hepatocellular carcinoma by MALDI-imaging MS


    Figure 3. Overlaid ion images of a rabbit tissue section.


  • Nanotechnology

    Nanotechnology is the study of the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices within that size. Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to investigating whether we can directly control matter on the atomic scale.



  • Polymer Science

    Combinational techniques, parallel experimentation and high-throughput methods represent a very promising approach in order to speed up the preparation and investigation of new polymeric materials: a large variety of parameters can be screened simultaneously resulting in new structure/property relationships. The field of polymer research seems to be perfectly suited for parallel and combinatorial methods due to the fact that many parameters can be varied during synthesis, processing, blending as well as compounding. In addition, numerous important parameters have to be investigated, such as molecular weight, polydispersity, viscosity, hardness, stiffness and other application specific properties. A number of corresponding high throughput techniques have been developed in the last few years and their introduction into the commercial market further boosted the development. These combinatorial approaches can reduce the time to market for new polymeric materials drastically compared to traditional approaches and allow a much more detailed understanding of polymers from the macroscopic to the nanoscopic scale. Here we provide an overview of the present status of combinatorial and parallel polymer synthesis and high throughput screening.
    Ciamician (1857-1922) tested hundreds of samples in parallel on the roof of his laboratory at the University of Bologna. (Photo courtesy of the University of Bologna).
    Appearance of the reaction vessels of polymerization of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline at varying temperatures. The colorless vessels were polymerized at low temperatures and the orange vessels were polymerized at high temperatures.


  • Professor

  • Secretary


    Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry IOMC, Sekretariat Lehrstuhl II/Schubert, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
    Humboldtstr. 10, D-07743 Jena
    Tel.: +49(0) 3641 9482 01
    Fax: +49(0) 3641 9482 02

  • Supramolecular Chemistry

    Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry beyond the molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. The forces responsible for the spatial organization may vary from weak (intermolecular forces, electrostatic or hydrogen bonding) to strong (covalent bonding), provided that the degree of electronic coupling between the molecular component remains small with respect to relevant energy parameters of the component. While traditional chemistry focuses on the covalent bond, supramolecular chemistry examines the weaker and reversible noncovalent interactions between molecules. These forces include hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, pi-pi interactions and electrostatic effects. Important concepts that have been demonstrated by supramolecular chemistry include molecular self-assembly, folding, molecular recognition, host-guest chemistry, mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures and dynamic covalent chemistry. The study of non-covalent interactions is crucial to understand many biological processes from cell structure to vision that rely on these forces for structure and function. Biological systems are often the inspiration for supramolecular research.


  • Undergraduate Students

  • Finance and Administration

  • Polymer Batteries

    Energy storage is one of the most crucial elements in the 21st century. Our mobile society requires tailor-made energy storage solutions for several technologies. Additionally, the demand for stationary energy solutions is, due to the unsteadiness of renewable resources, steadily growing. In this context, polymeric (“plastic”) materials offer great possibilities for the fabrication of energy storage devices – from the small scale (e.g., printable batteries) up to the large scale (e.g., polymer-redox flow batteries - pRFBs). The utilization of the organic material circumvents the usage of toxic/harmful and often critical raw materials (e.g., cobalt, vanadium, lead). For printed thin-film batteries cathode active materials can be combined either with metallic (zinc, sodium) or with polymer-based anodes. Due to their polymeric nature, the fabrication can be accomplished by well-known printing techniques (screen printing, roll-to-roll). Also the disposal of organic batteries is easy, because of the absence of heavy metals like cobalt, lead, nickel or similar.

    Moreover, large scale batteries (i.e. RFBs) for short-term storage of, e.g., wind or solar energy can be fabricated on polymer basis. For this purpose, electroactive polymers can be dissolved in simple aqueous electrolytes of RFBs. By this manner vanadium or other harmful, highly corrosive substances (acids, bromine, chromium) can be replaced allowing a new type of “green” stationary batteries. Low-cost industrial membranes as well as easy-to-manufacture polymeric materials provide an enormous economic potential.


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